MOODLE Installation

This post shows you the installation of MOODLE in Ubuntu 18.04 LTS (Long Term Support). A complete video is given below for installation of moodle.

MOODLE is LMS (Learning Management System)

MOODLE can be installed on a

  • Small Desktop (PC) 
  • Tower Server
  • Blade Server 
  • Private Cloud
  • Public or Hybrid Cloud 

Linux is powerful for moodle.

Two software are needed.
LAMP Server (Linux Apache MySQL Php)
Bitnami LAMP STACK - I already downloaded
Visit to download

MOODLE software - Prefer Always the latest stable version. I already downloaded.

Port number 80 is used

To which port number, 80 to be used (for this i need to be a super user or administator in this machine).

Installed in a folder called /opt (this folder is accessible only to super users)

Copy the files to /opt

$] sudo cp /opt/
$] cd /opt/
$] sudo chmod 755
To check the file permissions,
$] ls -l

BITNAMI LAMP Stack installed successfully.
To start using a terminal, here is the command

MOODLE installation

There is afolder called

$] cd /opt/lamp*/apache2/htdocs
$] sudo tar zxvf moodle-3.5.tgz
$] cd moodle/

By T S Pradeep Kumar

Frequent Wifi Disconnection Problem in Ubuntu

At times, when you are working on your computer, your wifi suddenly disconnects and everyone in your network also disconnect themselves with the wifi.

This is a peculiar problem of the today's OS. Of course, its not a bug i think. In windows 10, this problem still persists and there are so many workaround, yet to find the real answer for that.

But for Ubuntu or Debian or Linux Mint. There is a small workaround. Please follow the steps.

Open a terminal and type the following commands

$] iwconfig

For the above command you get this screen. Please see the black rounded information. Make a note of it
Power Management
Power Management
In my case, I already switched off the power management to off, but your case might be ON. So to make it permanently OFF, do the following steps.

$]  sudo gedit /etc/NetworkManager/conf.d/default-wifi-powersave-on.conf

Open the above file, there will be only two lines as given below
wifi.powersave = 3

Change the 3 to 2 in the second line and Save. After saving, reboot the machine.

You are done!!!

In case, if you want to do temporarily (Every time the machine is started, you need to issue the following command)

$ sudo iwconfig wlp2s0 power off

Your wifi interface device might be different, please use your name. I have shown it in RED color

By T S Pradeep Kumar

Unboxing Huami Amazfit

This post helps to know the features of Huami Amazfit BIP, a Smart watch from the Xiaomi Sister concern Huami. Its a perfect watch for those who do regular exercise everyday.
  • Easily linked with Apple and Android Phones/Tablets
  • Gives notifications for calls, messages, apps
  • display time, notifications like number of walked steps, calories burnt and km walked
  • so many activities from cycling, running, walking, shuttle badminton, etc.
  • It has DND feature, where you can disable/enable the DND (Do not Disturb) Option
  • It has heart rate monitor
  • Watch face can be changed with various images
  • 45 days battery life (but reduced lifetime for customisation)
  • Gives you warning for Sitting for longer duration
  • and there are so many benefits.
  • Its cost $99 in the world market and in India it costs around 7K to 8K
  • App to connect: Mi Fit (iOS and Android) through bluetooth
  • IP68 Water proof with GPS

Technical Specifications

2.5D Corning Gorilla Glass screen
Press button to operate
Lithium-ion polymer battery thats last for 45 days in single recharge
Battery: 190mAh
Polycarbonate case material
Silicone plastic band
OS: Android,IOS
Product size (L x W x H): 19.50 x 3.50 x 0.80 cm / 7.68 x 1.38 x 0.31″
Package size (L x W x H): 5.00 x 5.00 x 5.00 cm / 1.97 x 1.97 x 1.97″
Product weight: 0.0320 kg
Package Contents 1 x Smartwatch 1 x Charging Cable

Please see the video for unboxing Huami Amazfit BIP

Huami Amazfit 

Please subscribe to my youtube channel

find command in linux

In Linux, finding a file through a command line (SHELL) is faster than on its GUI. But there is a check.

find is the command to find the files in Linux.

$] find /place/to/search -name filename.extn
$] find /place/to/search -name "*.txt"

If you want to find the files between two dates, here is the command 

$] find /place/to/search -newermt 20160701 \! -newermt 20170731
the above command find the files between 1st July 2016 to 31st July 2017.

By T S Pradeep Kumar

How to make boot entry in CentOS for Windows 10

Whenever you try installing Cent OS, after the installation of CentOS, the windows 10  or windows 8 might have gone missing from the boot table entry.
This is due to one of the reasons
  • Since Windows 10 or 8 runs with NTFS filesystem which could not be understandable by Cent OS 
  • any other booting issues like UEFI or GPT partition issues.
Any how, one can try the first method to get rid of the NTFS filesystem issue.

After installing CEntOS, get it in to the Cent OS and open the terminal and give the command one by one

$] sudo yum install epel-release
$] sudo yum install epel-release.noarch

$] sudo yum install ntfs-3g 

Depending on the speed of the internet, the above command might take some time to install.

$] sudo grub2-mkconfig > /dev/null 

this command will read the windows 10 or 8 partition. Thats it. Reboot the machine and you can boot in to Windows 10.

Here is the image

  and final step is here, execute these commands
$] sudo grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg

If EFI Mode is enabled, then issue this command

$]  sudo grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/efi/EFI/centos/grub.cfg

Technology Tools for Teachers and Educators

The Mediocre teacher tells,
The good teacher explains,
The superior teacher demonstrates,
the great teacher inspires...... 

William Arthur Ward

If you are a teacher or a professor, you cannot survive with out technology and impress or inspire students of this generation. If you want to become a great teacher, here are some tools that you can use for your teaching and learning. The tools are characterised based on the categories. One or more of the tools can be used within or outside the classroom.

Technology Tools
Technology Tools for Teachers
Presentation Tools

  • MS Office (Power Point, Word and Excel)
  • Libre Office (Its Free and open source)
  • WPS Office (Its free, have support of all the MS Office files)
  • Prezi (Its a tool for infographics and animations within presentation)
  • MS Sway (This is from Microsoft and its a graphic content generation that can make the students learn the subject in a greater depth
  • Keynote (for Apple machines). Others also can use through to generate presentation using keynote.

Social Media

  • Facebook Groups
  • Google Groups
  • Facebook
  • Google+
  • Edmodo

Learning and Content Management Systems
  • MOODLE (Its complete LMS that have assignments, projects, quizzes, wiki, etc.). If you are individual cannot afford, you may use
  • Wordpress (For Blogging)
  • Drupal (Its for designing a portal for a list of subjects)
  • Joomla(Its also for designing a portal with industry standards)

Google Tools
Google itself have suggested various tools for Education and Learning. You can use these tools and get ready.
  • Blogger (its a blogging platform, you can record your classmates and other information in a blog, its there infinite, you can refer back to these contents even after 20+ years)
  • Youtube (Video Lectures made learning fast)
  • Google Apps for education (If you are a school or a college, you may request google to provide the tools for free)

Screen Recording and Video Recording

Debut Video Capture (You can record a video lecture when you are conducting a class and upload it to youtube or any other video hosting sites.) This software is completely free for educational purpose. just 2MB of size, it do wonders
  • Camstudio (This also free to use)
  • Jing (Its also free, you can take a screenshot image and screenshot video for a duration of 5 minutes and can record in SWF format). Its very handy to use.
  • Camtasia (Its a software but with paid subscription). Too costly to use this software.
  • Simple Screen Recorder (this is for Linux OS and comes free with open source)
  • VokoScreen (this is also linux, Its also free and open source).
  • QuickTime Player for Mac OS Machines.

Virtual Classroom 

Assume you want to handle a lecture outside the classroom you need a software that allows you to talk and present to your students. Here is the list
  • Skype (only with limited users)
  • Google Hangouts (maximum of 15 students )
  • Apache Openmeeting (You need to configure this to work for group of students). Its also free to use.
  • BigBlueButton with Greenlights (This also need to configured for use). But its free to use

Animation and Cartoon Creation

Sometimes we can create content with animation and cartoons. if you need to use it in your classroom lecture, here are some tools. They are free for limited use.
  • (Its a site to create cartoon using your own characters and world recognised characters)
  • (This is to create animated videos with your own dialogues)
  • MIT Scratch (This is free and open source, but everything is online to create graphical content.)

Mobile Apps based 

A teacher can create his or her own mobile applications also in teaching. Without the technicalities, one can easily create mobile apps for android and iOS. Here are the tools to create such apps
  • Android Studio for android apps.
  • MIT App Inventor 2 for Android Apps.
  • Xcode for iOS apps.
  • Apple Swift for creating iOS apps

    Importing Hot Potatoes Questions in MOODLE

    This post helps you in understanding the concept of creating a quiz in MOODLE 3.2 and how to import questions created from Hot Potatoes software.

    Hot potatoes is a software that creates questions for Matching, Objective Type and Fill in the blank options (Close Questions).

    MOODLE is a learning management system that can hosts courses, student, teachers and so many other things.

    This video shows how questions from Hot Potatoes software can be imported to MOODLE for handling the questions in a question bank.

    Hot potatoes creates xml file type questions name .jqz .jcl, .jmt. (These are all xml files) which can be understood by MOODLE

    Softwares needed
    To download Moodle: Moodle 3.3+
    To download Hot Potatoes: (There is a java version that can be used with any OS that has Java Virtual Machine)

    To view the above method, please see the following video

    The above video shows

    • how to import questions from Hot potatoes
    • how to create a quiz in MOODLE
    • how to handle the question bank.

    Change InnoDB file format to Barracuda

    MySQL and MariaDB uses innoDB for storing the tables in a file format called Antelope.  For large sites, the Antelope format doesn't support more columns which makes the backup option a tedious process.
    so it will be advised to change the file format to Barracuda. There are various options to do that. Here is a small workaround to change it to barracuda.

    Open Mysql from the command prompt and execute the commands one by one

    $] mysql -u root -p 

    The username is root here
    It will ask for the password: (Input the password here).

    mysql> select  version();
    mysql> show variables like "%innodb_file%";

    The output will be like this
    | Variable_name            | Value    |
    | innodb_file_format       | Antelope |
    | innodb_file_format_check | ON       |
    | innodb_file_format_max   | Antelope |
    | innodb_file_per_table    | ON       |
    4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

    mysql> SET GLOBAL innodb_file_format = barracuda;

    mysql> show variables like "%innodb_file%";      
    | Variable_name            | Value     |
    | innodb_file_format       | Barracuda |
    | innodb_file_format_check | ON        |
    | innodb_file_format_max   | Antelope  |
    | innodb_file_per_table    | ON        |
    4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

    mysql> SET GLOBAL innodb_file_format_max = barracuda;
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

    mysql> show variables like "%innodb_file%";          
    | Variable_name            | Value     |
    | innodb_file_format       | Barracuda |
    | innodb_file_format_check | ON        |
    | innodb_file_format_max   | Barracuda |
    | innodb_file_per_table    | ON        |
    4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

    See the picture below

    Big Blue Button – a Virtual Classroom Software

    This article appears in “Open Source For You” Magazine in June 2015 Edition. Its a simple and easy tryout. If you are a startup and cannot afford for software cost, here you go, its completely free. 
    There are some links to images which you cannot see, if you want to see those images, please purchase it online


    BigBlueButton is a Voice Over IP (VOIP) based web conferencing software. This tool is helpful for remote learning, virtual classrooms, distance education, online learning, etc. Some of the features of BigBlueButton includes
    • Record and Playback the entire session
    • Whiteboard for lectures (Similar to a black board in a classroom)
    • Desktop Sharing
    • Integrated VOIP for listening and speaking
    • Presentation (Any pdf or presentation file can be uploaded for teaching)
    • Webcam can be shared between the users
    • Private and group chat (In case the teacher can chat with a student or the students and teachers can chat within a group)
    This tool is completely open source and API is provided for deploying in local server. Also there is a developer version available for continuous development of the software.
    BigBlueButton divides into three windows within a browser, the left side window shows the list of users joined during the session, the web camera control, audio, video control, etc. The middle window shows the whiteboard wherein the teacher can write, scribble, type, draw, etc to broadcast it to all the listeners and the right side window is a chat window in which all the users chat as a group or individually they can chat with the teacher or other users.

    Installation of BigBlueButton in Ubuntu

    BigBlueButton currently released the 0.9.0 version that can installed mainly on a Ubuntu 14.04 OS that is released with Long Term Support (LTS). Here are the recommendations before installing in a server.
    Operating SystemUbuntu 14.04 – 64 bit
    RAMMinimum of 4GB, but 8GB preferred
    CPUA decent Quad Core CPU
    Ports to be unlocked80, 1925,9123 (TCP Ports), 16384-32768 (UDP)
    Space requirements500GB for recording and storage
    ServerCan be a Bare metal rather than a Virtual machine
    Table 1: prerequisites for BigBlueButton server
    Installation of BigBlueButton in a server is a long process that consumes around 500MB of software to be downloaded and takes around 2 to 3 hours to complete.
    Before installing the software, the following things have to be checked
    • Locale should be UTF-8
    • Check it using the command
    $ cat /etc/default/locale
    if not, then install the packages,
    $ sudo apt-get install language-pack-en
    $ sudo update-locale LANG=en_US.UTF-8
    Check the version of Ubuntu
    $ cat /etc/lsb_release
    DISTRIB_DESCRIPTION="Ubuntu 14.04.2 LTS"
    Once the checks are over, here is the installation of BigBlueButton
    Server Update
    Check trusty multiverse is there in the sources.list, if not add the following
    $ grep “multiverse” /etc/apt/sources.list
    The output should have
    deb trusty multiverse
    if the above line is not there, you can add the following command
    $ echo "deb trusty multiverse" | sudo tee -a /etc/apt/sources.list
    Now update the server before proceeding to the next step, here is the command
    $ sudo apt-get update
    $ sudo apt-get dist-upgrade
    Once the upgrading is over, restart the OS and now to install the LibreOffice. Ubuntu comes with LibreOffice 4.2.7 and BigBlueButton uses LibreOffice 4.3 for document conversion, so the PPA for LibreOffice 4.3 version have to be added.
    $ sudo apt-get install software-properties-common
    $ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:libreoffice/libreoffice-4-3

    Installation of Key of BigBlueButton

    The local machine need to access the BigBlueButton server, so the key have to be installed. Here is the command for installing the key.
    $ wget -O- | sudo apt-key add -
    $ echo "deb bigbluebutton-trusty main" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/bigbluebutton.list
    $ sudo apt-get update
    Install ffmpeg
    ffmpeg is a software that needs to be installed since it creates the playback components like audio, video, presentation, desktop sharing, etc.  This tool needs other dependencies also, so a group of tools have to be installed. Also there are some customisation in the OS. So the entire code is pasted in a shell script and the script runs the command one by one.
    Simply copy paste the following code in to a file
    sudo apt-get install build-essential git-core checkinstall yasm texi2html libvorbis-dev libx11-dev libvpx-dev libxfixes-dev zlib1g-dev pkg-config netcat libncurses5-dev
    cd /usr/local/src
    if [ ! -d "/usr/local/src/ffmpeg-${FFMPEG_VERSION}" ]; then
    sudo wget "${FFMPEG_VERSION}.tar.bz2"
    sudo tar -xjf "ffmpeg-${FFMPEG_VERSION}.tar.bz2"
    cd "ffmpeg-${FFMPEG_VERSION}"
    sudo ./configure --enable-version3 --enable-postproc --enable-libvorbis --enable-libvpx
    sudo make
    sudo checkinstall --pkgname=ffmpeg --pkgversion="5:${FFMPEG_VERSION}" --backup=no --deldoc=yes --default
    and run the file using
    $ sh
    (This process will take almost more than an hour to install ffmpeg and it adds some modules into the kernel to support the audio, video, etc.
    Install BigBlueButton
    Finally install the BigBlueButton software using the following command   
    $ sudo apt-get install bigbluebutton
    The above command will install the entire library of softwares with all the necessary dependencies, and this will download as many as 400MB of software from the Server. Figure 1 shows the installation of BigBlueButton
    Installation of Demo Software
    If you want to see the demo of how BigBlueButton is used, you can install the software using the command
    $ sudo apt-get install bbb-demo
    If you want to remove, then use the following commands
    $ sudo apt-get purge bbb-demo
    Other Settings
    To enable the WebRTC (Audio) for the Server, the following command can be used
    $ sudo bbb-conf --enablewebrtc
    To make a clean restart of BigBlueButton Server, you can use the following commands
    $ sudo bbb-conf --clean
    $ sudo bbb-conf --check
    –clean will clear all the log files of bigbluebutton and –check will search through and find any errors. See the Figure 2 for the –check command. The IP address allocated to my server is (its a local IP). To check the status of my server, you can see the Figure 3.
    Once the demo server is opened, just distribute the IP addresses and the users can connected to the IP and they can join the session. During the first time, the browser checks for devices like Microphone, Speaker and Web camera. The users are having the option of joining the session only as a listener or both listener and a speaker. In case, the user need not allow the browser to access the device.
    Integrating with MOODLE (A Case Study)
    MOODLE is a open Source Learning Management System (LMS) that comes with various plugins for additional functionalities. BigBlueButton also has two plugins RecordingsBN and BigBlueButtonBN
    This is to integrate MOODLE and BigBlueButton so that a teacher can create an activity within MOODLE and the students can join themselves in the session. The teacher have the entire control of the session. The students can join the session, only after the teacher joins the session. Also the session can be recorded by the teacher and may be used for later use.
    This plugin accepts two inputs URL and a Secret Key (This setting will be set by the administrator of MOODLE). The teachers and the students need not have any control over this setting. The secret can be obtained using
    $ sudo bbb-conf –secret
      Secret: 1c5d8b004826c6edcbe19fxxxxxxxxxx
    Both the above parameters have to be set as shown in the figure 4
    Figure 4 – MOODLE Integration
    Figure 5 – Full demonstration of BigBlueButton
    Figure 5 shows the demonstration of a lecture on a white board wherein a teacher is typing an information and there are two other users in the session listening. The users are viewing the video of the teacher and they can send messages to the teacher through the window provided in the right side column.
    Using these open source tools MOODLE and BigBlueButton, huge amount of money can be saved in learning and colleges/universities across the country come forward to motivate students and faculty members to learn/use open source tools for their learning.
    Useful (Reference) Links:
    To download MOODLE :
    Edit: Now recently Big Blue Button added a new functionality called “Poll”, in which a speaker can ask for a question and answered by the listeners anonymously and the poll can be shared instantly to the viewers.
    See the screen shot here

    Big Blue Button
    Big Blue Button

    Big Blue Button
    Big Blue Button

    Big Blue Button
    Big Blue Button

    How to enable Telnet and SSH in Mac OS

    Enable Telnet
    This post shows how to enable Telnet and SSH in Mac OS X.
    To Enable Telnet, issue the following command (Open the Terminal and issue)
    $] sudo launchctl load -w /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/telnet.plist
    This will enable Telnet, and to check its working, try this
    $] telnet localhost
    To disable Telnet, issue the following command
    $] sudo launchctl unload -w /System/Library/LaunchDaemons/telnet.plist
    Enable SSH
    To enable SSH, in the Mac OS X,
    Open System Preferences -> Sharing -> Remote Login (Put the Tick Mark)

    Once enabled, these machines can be connected remotely using their IP Addresses. Both these things works only when the port 22 and 23 are unblocked by the firewall
    To check Telnet is working or not
    $] telnet localhost
    supply the username and password (you are connected..)

    Virtual Host in Bitnami Lampstack

    IF you have a website that runs with an IP address and you decide to move it to a domain, then here is the clear step.  Also this post will be helpful to you if you are running a same website by two different IP Address (One in campus and another outside the campus)

    Your IP Address (Example): (Internal IP)
    Your IP Address (Example): (External IP)

    You want to move it to: (instead of

    Step 1:
    Open the file /opt/lampstack-5.5.31-0/apache/conf/bitnami/bitnami.conf
    In the above file, Change these lines  (The bold lines are the changed ones)

    <VirtualHost _default_:80>
    DocumentRoot “/opt/lampstack-5.5.31-0/apache2/htdocs/site”
    <Directory “/opt/lampstack-5.5.31-0/apache2/htdocs”>
    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
    AllowOverride All
    <IfVersion < 2.3 >
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all
    <IfVersion >= 2.3 >
    Require all granted

    <VirtualHost _default_:80>
    DocumentRoot “/opt/lampstack-5.5.31-0/apache2/htdocs/site
    <Directory “/opt/lampstack-5.5.31-0/apache2/htdocs”>
    Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
    AllowOverride All
    <IfVersion < 2.3 >
    Order allow,deny
    Allow from all
    <IfVersion >= 2.3 >
    Require all granted

    Step 2: (Optional)
    Open the file using sudo, /etc/hosts and include your IP with the domain name
    GNU nano 2.2.6 File: /etc/hosts localhost administrator
    # The following lines are desirable for IPv6 capable hosts
    ::1 ip6-localhost ip6-loopback
    fe00::0 ip6-localnet
    ff00::0 ip6-mcastprefix
    ff02::1 ip6-allnodes
    ff02::2 ip6-allrouters

    Once done, restart apache server or the bitnami server by issuing this command
    $/opt/lampstack-5.5.31-0] ./ctlscript restart 
    And now check in the browser, you have done…..

    If you manage apache server manually (Other than using bitnami lampstack), then you can edit the httpd-vhosts.conf file with the above steps.

    How to access ext2, ext3 and ext4 filesystems in windows OS

    Dual boot with Windows and Linux leads to the access of files in other Operating Systems. Viewing a windows partition on a Linux OS is not a big task. One can simply mount the OS and can see the files of windows within Linux.

    But accessing Linux EXT2, EXT3 and EXT4 files within Windows can be done only through an external software.

    EXt2FSD is a software that does this job. you can download the software from this link 
    Once installed, its as easy as possible to “assign a drive letter ” to the partition.  Figure below shows that.



    Its just a simple process to access the linux files within windows. This is really helpful for the machines with UEFI partition. When Linux Boot loader is deleted, this will help to retrieve the files.
    Any other info, please comment below.