Inter process communication using Shared Memory
One of the simplest interprocess communication methods is using shared memory. Shared memory allows two or more processes to access the same memory as if they all called malloc and were returned pointers to the same actual memory. When one process changes the memory, all the other processes see the modification.
Shared memory is the fastest form of interprocess communication because all processes share the same piece of memory. Access to this shared memory is as fast as accessing a process’s nonshared memory, and it does not require a system call or entry to the kernel. It also avoids copying data unnecessarily. Because the kernel does not synchronize accesses to shared memory, you must provide your own synchronization. For example, a process should not read from the memory until after data is written there, and two processes must not write to the same memory location at the same time.A common strategy to avoid these race conditions is to use semaphores, which are discussed in the next section. Our illustrative programs, though, show just a single process accessing the memory, to focus on the shared memory mechanism and to avoid cluttering the sample code with synchronization logic.
There are three flag values include while dealing with shared memory, these flags are supplied as the third parameter of the function
int segment_id = shmget (shm_key, getpagesize (), IPC_CREAT | S_IRUSR | S_IWUSER);