Showing posts from January, 2011

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If you are a student and if you want to design digital circuits and to learn VHDL/Verilog, then download the Active HDL 7.2 Student Edition. The Size of the file comes around 140MB. Install as per the recommended settings. Once installed, without license file the application wont open. You need to register to get the license file. The file would be sent to our email Id or directly after registration we can download the file in the web page itself. The license file is applicable only for that machine. If the software has to be installed on another machine, another license you need to download.Copy the license_student.dat file in the following folder **C:\Program Files\Aldec\Active-HDL 7.2SE\Dat. **And now the application can be opened and digital circuits can be simulated

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bit is just called as binary digitTo represent 2n elements, n bits are neededHere are the following Binary Codes, For example, the **BCD code is otherwise called as 8421 code** where the 8,4,2,1 are the weights assigned to the digitsfor number 3 (0011), the weightage will be 0 * **8** + 0 * **4** + 1 * **2** + 1 ***1**in **84-2-1** code, the weights are arranged like this, for example, for number 2 (0110), it is 0 * **8** + 1 * **4** + 1 * **–2 **+ 0 * **–1**similarly the same case for **2421 codes**.**Excess – 3 is a code which is in excess of 3 in decimal numbers .****Error Detection Codes**Binary information is usually transmitted from one place to other through wired medium, due to the electromagnetic radiation or external noise, the information bits can be changed (ie 1 to 0 or 0 to 1), in this scenario, there is a provision to check whether the given word or byte is correct or not. Parity bits are used for that.Odd parity or even parity is adopted based on the application, but mostly even parity is adopted.Parity bit is an extra…

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Complements are used in digital computers for simplifying the subtraction and for logical manipulations. There are two types of complementRadix complements ( r complement)diminished radix complements (r-1 complement)For **base 2 **or binary number system the **r’s complement **is **2’s complement **and (**r-1)’s complement **is **1’s complement**For **base 10 **or decimal system the r’s complement is **10’s complement **and **(r-1)’s complement **is **9’s complement. ****10’s Complement****Let us assume the number 3567890, for finding the 10’s complement, there is a rule**3567890Most significant DigitLeast Significant Digit10’s complement can be obtained byleaving all least significant 0’s unchangedsubtracting the first non zero least significant digit from 10and subtracting all higher significant digits from 9For the above example, The 10’s complement isGiven number3567890Process9-39-59-69-79-810-9unchanged10’s Complement6432110so 10’s complement of **3567890 **is **6432110****9’s Complement**9’s complement is a diminished radix complemen…

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Number conversion is the fundamental operation of any digital systems.There are different bases like base2, base8, base10 and base 16Base – 10Base 2

(Binary)Base 8

(Octal)Base 16

(Hexadecimal)0000000010001011200100223001103340100044501010556011006670111077810001089100111910101012A11101113B12110014C13110115D14111016E15111117FThe above table shows the various base systems. Converting between one base to another base is of importance. Usually all the numbering systems of day to day life is done using Base 10 or Decimal system. So it is necessary to convertOther Base to Decimal Decimal to other baseAny number represented as**anan-1an-2an-3…..a1a0 . a-1a-2……..a-n**We will see one by one**Decimal to Binary (Base 10 to Base 2)****(19.456)10 – (?.?)2**In the above, the number 19.456 has to be converted to binary or base2 which will have only 0s and 1s.First we will take 19DivisionQuotientRemainderRemarks19/291a0=19/241a1=14/220a2=02/210a3=01/201a4=1so the conversion is 10011Sec…

(Binary)Base 8

(Octal)Base 16

(Hexadecimal)0000000010001011200100223001103340100044501010556011006670111077810001089100111910101012A11101113B12110014C13110115D14111016E15111117FThe above table shows the various base systems. Converting between one base to another base is of importance. Usually all the numbering systems of day to day life is done using Base 10 or Decimal system. So it is necessary to convertOther Base to Decimal Decimal to other baseAny number represented as

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