Introduction to wireless sensor networks

Sensor networks contain large collection of nodes which are autonomous in nature and has short range communication. Sensor nodes are good for monitoring the animal habitat (movement) in forest, identifying the ripened fruit among given set of fruits, objects in a building, etc.

The main challenge behind the deployment of WSN is Energy. Energy is scarce resource, means once the battery is drained, there may be situation where the battery may not be replaced (Eg. dense forests, sea, ocean, etc) So in these cases, energy efficiency should be maintained between the sensor nodes.

Also sometimes the nodes will be thrown in to the sea or ocean for identifying fish availability. in those cases, the sensor nodes will not be taken back and hence these nodes are short lived. They give data for sometime and after that they die.

Because of these real world applications, the sensor networks are nowadays having good research potential when compared with the adhoc networks. So, what makes sensor nodes are different from than that of Adhoc Nodes.

  • Sensor nodes are densely deployed and prone to failures frequently
  • Number of sensor nodes are huge when compared with the adhoc nodes.
  • Sensor network topology changes frequently
  • Sensor nodes uses broadcasting whereas the adhoc nodes uses point to point communication
  • Sensor nodes are limited in memory and power
  • it has limited computation (simple operations)
  • Above all, All sensor nodes have a common goal (for a particular achievement)