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Processors in Embedded Systems

Processors in Embedded Systems

A Processor in an Embedded Systems contains two essential parts

* Control Unit - Which fetches the instruction from the system memory* Execution unit

Arithmetic and Logic Unit is also the part of Execution Unit

It performs Data Transfer and data conversion operations


Types of processors


General Purpose Processors (GPP)MicroprocessorMicrocontrollerDigital Signal Processors (DSPs)Media Processorsuseful for sound and image processing applicationsApplication Specific System ProcessorsThe processors which are relevant to a particular application likeDigital TVHDTV decodersSet Top BoxesDVD Player

Important considerations while selecting a processorInstruction SetMaximum bits in an operand like (8 or 16 or 32 bit)Clock frequency in MHz and processing speed in MIPS (Millions of Instructions per second)ability to solve the complex algorithms used in meeting the deadline for their processing

MicroprocessorsIt is a VLSI Chip which has a Central Processing Unit (…

Introduction to Embedded Systems

Definition:
The Combination of Software and Hardware in which the software controls the entire hardware for a dedicated application.

Components of an Embedded Systems
* Power Supply and Reset circuit
* Timer
* Watch Dog Timer or WDT
* Processor
* Memory
RAM Which stores the data (data Memory)
ROM Which stores the Program (Program Memory)
* Interrupt controllers
* IO Ports
* UART for Serial communication
* Parallel ports

Classification of Embedded Systems

Small Scale Embedded Systems
* Uses 8 or 16 bit microcontrollers
* Software and harware complexity is very less
* uses C as a programming language
* The codes are cross compiled and stored in the system memory.
* They sometimes may be battery operated.
Example processors : Intel 8051, Microchip PIC16f8X, Motorola 68HC05,08

Medium Scale Embedded Systems
* Uses 16 or 32 bit controllers or sometime uses DSPs(Digital Signal Processors) or RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Processors)
* They have great complexity.
* They use a Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS), SImul…